Understanding Health and Safety legislation fines: Insights from the Sentencing Council

In the realm of criminal law, fines play a pivotal role in deterring unlawful behaviour and ensuring that individuals and organisations are held accountable for their actions. One area where fines are particularly significant is in cases involving breaches of health and safety regulations. 

The Sentencing Council, a key authority in the United Kingdom responsible for developing sentencing guidelines, provides comprehensive guidance on the fines imposed for these breaches. In this article, we will explore the health and safety legislation fines associated with breaches, with insights drawn from the Sentencing Council’s guidance.

The Importance of Health and Safety Regulations

Health and safety regulations are in place to protect the well-being of employees, non-employees, and the general public. These regulations cover a wide range of industries, from construction and manufacturing to healthcare and hospitality.

Compliance with health and safety rules is not only a legal requirement but also a moral obligation for employers and self-employed individuals.

Understanding the Sentencing Council’s Guidelines

The Sentencing Council sets out clear guidelines for the fines associated with breaches of health and safety regulations. The guidelines are structured to ensure that fines are proportionate to the seriousness of the offence and the culpability of the offender.

Several factors are considered when determining the appropriate fine, including the harm caused, the level of risk, and the financial means of the offender.

Harm Caused

The harm caused by a breach of health and safety regulations is a primary consideration when determining the fine. The Sentencing Council categorises harm as either low, medium, or high. Low harm may involve minor injuries or near misses, while high harm could result in severe injuries, long-term health problems, or even fatalities. Fines are adjusted accordingly, with higher fines for cases involving greater harm.



The level of risk associated with the breach is another crucial factor. The Sentencing Council distinguishes between cases where the risk was foreseeable and those where it was not. Deliberate breaches or cases where the offender ignored known risks may lead to higher fines.


Culpability refers to the degree of blame or fault attributed to the offender. The Sentencing Council identifies four levels of culpability: low, medium, high, and very high. Factors such as the offender’s awareness of the risks, their disregard for regulations, and their efforts to prevent harm influence the determination of culpability. An offender with a high level of culpability can expect a more substantial fine.

Financial Means

The Sentencing Council also takes into account the financial means of the offender. Fines are meant to be punitive, but they should not be so severe that they lead to insolvency or closure of a business. Therefore, the offender’s financial circumstances are considered when setting the fine.

Case Examples


To illustrate how the Sentencing Council’s guidelines work in practice, consider the following scenarios:

Scenario 1: A construction company knowingly cuts corners on safety measures, leading to a worker suffering a life-altering injury. In this case, the harm is high, the risk was foreseeable, and the culpability is very high. The fine imposed would be substantial.

Scenario 2: A small business owner inadvertently fails to comply with a health and safety regulation, resulting in a minor injury to an employee. Here, the harm is low, the risk was not foreseeable, and the culpability is low. The fine would likely be at the lower end of the scale.

What kind of cases would lead to an unlimited fine? 


Unlimited fines for health and safety breaches in the United Kingdom are reserved for the most serious cases where the negligence or misconduct of an individual or organisation has led to exceptionally severe harm or fatality. Such cases are handled by the Crown Courts, rather than the Magistrates Court, where fines can be unlimited and offenders may face a prison sentence. 


Here are a few examples of situations where unlimited health and safety legislation fines have been imposed:


  • Fatal Workplace Accidents: When a health and safety breach results in the death of one or more individuals, the fines can be unlimited. For instance, if a construction company is found to have ignored safety regulations that led to a fatal accident on a construction site, they may face an unlimited fine.


  • Reckless Disregard for Regulations: In cases where a company or individual has demonstrated a complete disregard for health and safety regulations, particularly when this disregard is deliberate or reckless, unlimited fines may be imposed. For example, if a factory owner knowingly operates machinery without proper safety guards, resulting in a worker losing a limb, they could face an unlimited fine.


  • Environmental Health and Safety Breaches: Environmental health and safety breaches that lead to significant harm or environmental damage can also result in unlimited fines. For instance, if a company negligently handles hazardous materials, causing a chemical spill that harms the environment and endangers public health, an unlimited fine may be imposed.


  • Repeat Offences: When an offender has a history of non-compliance with health and safety regulations and continues to breach them despite prior warnings or penalties, they may face an unlimited fine. This is particularly true if their actions have already caused harm in the past.


  • Corporate Manslaughter: In cases of corporate manslaughter, where an organisation’s gross negligence results in the death of an employee or other individuals, the company can face unlimited fines. This is a very serious offence that can have severe financial consequences for the organisation.


  • Flagrant Disregard for Employee Welfare: If an employer is found to have systematically and willfully neglected the health and safety of their employees, resulting in serious harm or fatalities, they may be subject to unlimited fines. This could include situations where employees are exposed to dangerous working conditions over an extended period.


It’s important to note that the imposition of unlimited fines is not common and typically reserved for the most egregious cases. The fines are intended to serve as a significant deterrent and a means of holding individuals and organisations accountable for their actions.

Fines of this magnitude underscore the seriousness of health and safety breaches and emphasise the importance of compliance with regulations to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

Recent fines related following deaths of those working in isolation

May 2023

Security firm Serco were fined £2.2 million after their custody officer suffered fatal injuries while restraining a prisoner in custody. 

In a separate incident in 2015, another member of staff was rammed against the wall and strangled. Investigations found that there were only 22 members of staff at court when there should have been 32, meaning that it took longer for a response to the member of staff’s alarm. In this case, the HSE inspector on the case noted that Serco were not “learning from their mistakes.”


November 2022

A wind-farm firm were fined almost £900k after a security guard died of hypothermia. 74-year-old security guard Ronnie Alexander was in an area of low-signal during a yellow weather warning for snow. It was reported that the site lost all heating and power during the adverse weather.

How can you avoid a fine? 

You must have an understanding of your responsibilties towards your team. Check out our article around legislations that apply to lone working

Once you have that understanding, you should create a risk assessment so you have a plan on how to ensure your employees safety. It may well be that you should consider a way for your lone workers to raise an alarm, and that’s something we can help with.

Check out our solutions, and if you’d like to see how these can work alongside your business, then click below for a quick tour!